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Cardiac Output

Cardiac Output

Chapter 27: Management of Patients with Coronary Vascular Disorders: 

Conditions to Know: CAD, Angina pectoris, MI

1. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease in the U.S. What is atherosclerosis?

2. What are some risk factors (modifiable vs. non-modifiable) for coronary artery disease (CAD)? See Chart 27-1.

3. What are some clinical manifestations of CAD?

4. What are some preventative measures for the development of CAD?

5. What is angina pectoris & what are some causes of it? Review the types of angina listed in Chart 27-2.

6. Describe what angina pain usually looks like for most patients. Are there any other atypical symptoms that can present with angina pain?

7. Describe the nursing & medical management involved for treating angina. See Table 27-3 for medication summary.

8. What are some teaching points for patients regarding home use of nitroglycerin? See Chart 27-3.

9. Describe the pathophysiology of what happens during a myocardial infarction (MI).

10. MI typically presents with symptoms similar to angina (chest pain). Is MI pain relieved with nitroglycerin?

11. How is MI diagnosed?

12. What are the 3 most important drugs that are given, along with oxygen therapy, to a patient presenting with MI chest pain?

13. Medications given during an MI are similar to those used to treat angina. Are there any additional medications given during an MI?

14. Patients diagnosed with an MI often need to go for a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), also known as a cardiac catheterization. What is done during this procedure?

Chapter 30: Assessment & Management of Patients with Vascular Disorders & Problems of Peripheral Circulation

Conditions to Know: PAD, Raynaud’s disease, DVT

1. What is peripheral arterial disease (PAD)?

2. Intermittent claudication is a hallmark symptom of PAD. What is intermittent claudication?

3. What are some other physical assessment findings of PAD?

4. What are some risk factors for PAD? See Chart 30-2.

5. Describe the nursing care and medical management involved in caring for a patient with PAD.

6. What is Raynaud’s disease? Describe what triggers and happens during an attack.

7. What are some teaching points you would want to include for patients with Raynaud’s disease?

8. What is a DVT and what are the primary risk factors for this condition?

9. What are signs and symptoms of a DVT?

10. What are some preventative measures patients can take to reduce the risk of DVT?

11. What are some teaching points to include for patients receiving anticoagulants (heparin, lovenox, and/or warfarin) for DVT management or prevention?

Chapter 31: Assessment & Management of Patients with Hypertension

1. Hypertension (HTN) is defined based on what two specific parameters?

2. What are the BP parameters for pre-HTN, stage 1 HTN, and stage 2 HTN?

3. What are some risk factors for HTN? See Chart 31-1.

4. Why does HTN often go undiagnosed until patients seek healthcare for a different problem?

5. What are some complications of HTN?

6. What are some necessary initial lifestyle changes that are recommended for patients who have HTN, to help prevent them from needing to be on anti-hypertensive medications?

7. Describe the mechanisms of action and nursing implications for the following classes of antihypertensive medications – diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs), & beta blockers.

8. What is the difference between HTN emergency and HTN urgency? How are these conditions treated?

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